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24. Tanno T, Noel P, Miller JL. Growth differentiation factor 15 in erythroid health and disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 2010;17(3):184�C90.PubMedCentralPubMed""Introduction Oral posture and equilibrium theory The teeth and alveolus are currently believed to lie in a position of balance between the tongue, the cheek and the lips [1�C4]. In the context of the aetiology of malocclusion, the influence of muscle activity and posture is usually listed under ��local factors�� and little information is available about the extent of their impact or indeed how they can be assessed . There is now wide agreement that muscle weakness is linked to increased vertical growth . The teeth and their supporting structures are known to be highly resistant to short-term forces , but light forces over an extended period of time can have a dramatic effect on the skeletal bones, especially in younger children [3, 4]. Open-mouth posture is one of the most common disturbances of oral posture . This does not exclusively refer to the mouth breathing mode . As Vig et al.  have pointed out, open-mouth habits do not necessarily coincide with mouth breathing. Fulvestrant
However, open-mouth posture is necessarily associated with an open lip seal and, in turn, with a disturbance of soft tissue balance. The natural lip seal is lost in most infants in industrialised populations by the age of four . Some of them develop a competent lip seal for social reasons and many continue to keep their lips apart, especially at night . Patients with a high level of open-mouth posture show significantly smaller growth of the www.selleckchem.com/products/SP600125.html
maxillary arch [9, 10]. The influence of tongue position on malocclusion has also been confirmed by clinical and experimental research. Lundeen and Gibbs  and Melsen et al.  have noted that those who rest and swallow with their teeth in contact have less malocclusion, suggesting that postures with the tongue between teeth could also cause malocclusion. Harvold et al.  experimentally displaced the tongues of monkeys from the normal position and observed widespread occlusal and skeletal consequences, with considerable reduction of the maxillary arch width in every juvenile animal. This suggests that changes in muscle posture have a greater influence than muscle function . Orofacial dysfunction is believed to depend on neuromuscular activity.